The Sorby Natural History Society, Sheffield

Covering a full range of natural history interests in Sheffield and the surrounding area, providing for both interested beginners and specialists.

BTO Habitat / Land Use Codes for Bird Recording

Some examples of how these codes are used can be found on the partially completed spreadsheet, as shown on the Recording Birds page.

Bird Study 1992, 39, 1-12

WOODLAND CODES

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
A. Woodland (> 5m tall) 1. Broadleaved
2. Coniferous
3. Mixed broadleaved & conifers:10% of each
4. Broadleaved waterlogged
5. Coniferous waterlogged
6. Mixed broadleaved & coniferous waterlogged
1. Mixed-age or semi-natural
2. Coppice with standards
3. Coppice without standards
4. Mature plantation (taller than 10m, closed canopy)
5. Young plantation (5-10m, open canopy)
6. Parkland (scattered trees and grassy areas)
7. High-medium disturbance from people
8. Low disturbance
1. Predominantly tall
2. Moderate shrub layer
3. Sparse shrub layer
4. Dense field layer
5. Moderate field layer
6. Sparse field layer
7. Grazed (moderate to heavy)
8. Lightly grazed
9. Dead wood present
10. Dead wood absent

SCRUBLAND CODES

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
B. Scrubland (or very young woodland <5m tall) 1. Regenerating natural or semi-natural woodland
2. Downland (chalk/lst)
3. Heath scrub
4. Young coppice
5. New plantation
6. Clear-felled woodl’d with or without saplings
7. Other
1. Broadleaved
2. Coniferous
3. Mixed broadleaved & conifers (10% of each)
4. Broadleaved swamp scrub
5. Coniferous swamp scrub
6. Mixed broadleaved & coniferous swamp scrub
7. High-medium disturbance from people
8. Low disturbance
1. Predominantly tall (3-5m)
2. Predominantly low (1-3m)
3. Dense shrub layer
4. Moderate shrub layer
5. Sparse shrub layer
6. Extensive bracken
7. Dense field layer
8. Moderate field layer
9. Sparse field layer
10. Grazed (moderate to heavy)
11. Grazed (heavy)

GRASSLAND and MARSH CODES

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
C. Semi-natural grassland & marsh 1. Chalk/Lst downland
2. Grass-moor (unenclosed)
3. Grass-moor mixed with heather (unenclosed)
4. Machair
5. Other dry grassland
6. Water-meadow/grazing marsh
7. Reed swamp
8. Other open marsh
9. Salt marsh
1. Hedgerow with trees
2. Hedgerow without trees
3. Tree-line without hedge
4. Other field boundary (wall, ditch, etc)
5. Isolated group of 1-10 trees
6. No field boundary
7. Montane
8. High-medium disturbance from people
9. Low disturbance
1. Ungrazed
2. Cattle
3. Sheep
4. Horses
5. Rabbits
6. Deer
7. Other grazers
8. Extensive bracken
9. Hay
10. Grazed, stock absent

HEATHLAND and BOG CODES

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
D. Heathland & Bogs 1. Dry heath
2. Wet heath
3. Mixed wet/dry heath
4. Bog
5. Breckland
6. Drained bog
1. Montane
2. Raised bog
3. Valley-basin bog
4. Blanket bog
5. Heath mixed with rough grass
6. Heath without grass
7. Heath with extensive bracken
8. Undetermined bog
9. Isolated group of 1-10 trees
10. High to medium disturbance from people
1. Ungrazed
2. Cattle
3. Sheep
4. Horses
5. Rabbits
6. Deer
7. Other grazers
8. Ploughed
9. Burned
10. Planted with saplings <0.5m tall
11. Grazed, stock absent

FARMLAND CODES

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
E. Farmland 1. Apparently improved grassland
2. Apparently unimproved grassland
3. Mixed grass/tilled land
4. Tilled land
5. Orchard
6. Other farming
1. Hedgerow with trees
2. Hedgerow without trees
3. Tree-line without hedge
4. Other field boundary (wall, ditch, etc)
5. Isolated group of 1-10 trees
6. Farmyard (active)
1. Ungrazed
2. Cattle
3. Sheep
4. Horses
5. Other stock
6. Bare earth
7. Autumn cereal
8. Spring cereal
9. Root crops
10. Other crops e.g.rape
11. Set-aside
12. Stubble
13. Grazed, stock absent

HUMAN SITES CODES

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
F. Human sites 1. Urban
2. Suburban
3. Rural
1. Buildings
2. Gardens
3. Municipal/parks/recreational areas
4. Sewage works ‘urban’
5. Near road (within 50m)
6. Near active railway line (within 50m)
7. Other
8. Rubbish tip
1. Industrial
2. Residential
3. Well-wooded
4. Not well wooded
5. Large area of garden (> 450m2)
6. Medium area of gdn (100m2-450m2)
7. Small area of garden (<100m2)
8. Many shrubs
9. Few shrubs

FRESHWATER HABITAT CODES

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
G. Water-bodies (freshwater) 1. Pond (50m2)
2. Small water -body (50-450m2)
3. Lake/unlined reservoir
4. Lined reservoir
5. Gravel pit, sand pit etc
6. Stream (<3m wide)
7. River (>3m wide)
8. Ditch with water (<2m wide)
9. Small canal (2-5m wide)
10. Large canal (>5m wide)
1. Undisturbed/disused
2. Water sports (sailing, etc)
3. Angling (coarse or game)
4. Coarse angling
5. Game fishing
6. Industrial activity
7. Sewage processing ‘rural’
8. Other disturbance
9. Small island
1. Eutrophic (green water)
2. Oligotrophic (clear water, few weeds)
3. Dystrophic (black water)
4. Marl (clear water large water weeds)
5. Slow-medium runn’g
6. Fast running
7. Dredged
8. Undredged
9. Banks cleared
10. Banks vegetated

INLAND ROCK CODES

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4
I. Inland rock 1. Cliff
2. Scree/boulder slope
3. Limestone pavement
4. Other rock outcrop (sand, shingle)
5. Quarry
6. Mine/spoil/slag heap
7. Cave
1. Active
2. Disused
3. Montane
4. Non-montane
5. High disturbance from climber, walkers etc
6. Medium disturbance
7. Low disturbance

 
 

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